INTRODUCTION: Banking is nearly as old as civilization. The history of banking could be said to have started with the appearance of money. The first record of minted metal coins was in Mesopotamia in about 2500B.C. the first European banknotes, which was handwritten appeared in1661, in Sweden. cheque and printed paper money appeared in the 1700’s and 1800’s, with many banks created to deal with increasing trade.
The history of banking in each country runs in lines with the development of trade and industry, and with the level of political confidence and stability. The ancient Romans developed an advanced banking system to serve their vast trade network, which extended throughout Europe, Asia and Africa.
Modern banking began in Venice. The word bank comes from the Italian word “ban co”, meaning bench, because moneylenders worked on benches in market places. The bank of Venice was established in 1171 to help the government raise finance for a war.
At the same time, in England merchant started to ask goldsmiths to hold gold and silver in their safes in return for a fee. Receipts given to the Merchant were sometimes used to buy or sell, with the metal itself staying under lock and key. The goldsmith realized that they could lend out some of the gold and silver that they had and charge interest, as not all of the merchants would ask for the gold and silver back at the same time. Eventually, instead of charging the merchants, the goldsmiths paid them to deposit their gold and silver.
The bank of England was formed in 1694 to borrow money from the public for the government to finance the war of Augsburg against France. By 1709, goldsmith were using bank of England notes of their own receipts.
New technology transformed the banking industry in the 1900’s round the world, banks merged into larger and fewer groups and expanded into other country.
BANKING STRUCTURE IN INDIA:
In today’s dynamic world banks are inevitable for the development of a country. Banks play a pivotal role in enhancing each and every sector. They have helped bring a draw of development on the world’s horizon and developing country like India is no exception.
Banks fulfills the role of a financial intermediary. This means that it acts as a vehicle for moving finance from those who have surplus money to (however temporarily) those who have deficit. In everyday branch terms the banks channel funds from depositors whose accounts are in credit to borrowers who are in debit.
Without the intermediary of the banks both their depositors and their borrowers would have to contact each other directly. This can and does happen of course. This is what has lead to the very foundation of financial institution like banks.
Before few decades there existed some influential people who used to land money. But a substantially high rate of interest was charged which made borrowing of money out of the reach of the majority of the people so there arose a need for a financial intermediate.
The Bank have developed their roles to such an extent that a direct contact between the depositors and borrowers in now known as disinter-mediation.
Banking industry has always revolved around the traditional function of taking deposits, money transfer and making advances. Those three are closely related to each other, the objective being to lend money, which is the profitable activity of the three. Taking deposits generates funds for lending and money transfer services are necessary for the attention of deposits. The Bank have introduced progressively more sophisticated versions of these services and have diversified introduction in numerable areas of activity not directly relating to this traditional trinity