Data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation. Compression can be either lossy or lossless. Lossless compression reduces bits by identifying and eliminating statistical redundancy.
No information is lost in lossless compression. Lossy compression reduces bits by identifying marginally important information and removing it.
Compression is useful because it helps reduce the consumption of resources such as data space or transmission capacity. Because compressed data must be decompressed to be used, this extra processing imposes computational or other costs through decompression.
Two types of compression:
- Lossy compression
- Lossless compression
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- Linear Pulse Code Modulation (LPCM, generally only described as PCM) is the most used format for uncompressed audio and it is also standard for Compact Disc Digital Audio; note that LPCM is in a computer usually stored in AIFF, WAV, AU container formats or as the RAW audio format.
- Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF, audio container format).
- WAV – Microsoft “WAVE”, audio container format (format supports compression, but it is rarely used).
- Pulse-density modulation (PDM).
- Direct Stream Digital (DSD) is standard for Super Audio CD foobar2000 Super Audio CD Decoder (based on MPEG-4 DST reference decoder). Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)