From the perspective of data security, which has always been an important aspect of quality of service, Cloud Computing inevitably poses new challenging security threats for number of reasons. Considering various kinds of data for each user stored in the cloud and the demand of long term continuous assurance of their data safety-
1 . Firstly, traditional cryptographic primitives for the purpose of data security protection can not be directly adopted due to the users’ loss control of data under Cloud Computing. Therefore, verification of correct data storage in the cloud must be conducted without explicit knowledge of the whole data. Considering various kinds of data for each user stored in the cloud and the demand of long term continuous assurance of their data safety, the problem of verifying correctness of data storage in the cloud becomes even more challenging.
2 . Secondly, Cloud Computing is not just a third party data warehouse. The data stored in the cloud may be frequently updated by the users, including insertion, deletion, modification, appending, reordering, etc. To ensure storage correctness under dynamic data update is hence of paramount importance.
These techniques, while can be useful to ensure the storage correctness without having users possessing data, can not address all the security threats in cloud data storage, since they are all focusing on single server scenario and most of them do not consider dynamic data operations. As an complementary approach, researchers have also proposed distributed protocols for ensuring storage correctness across multiple servers or peers. Again, none of these distributed schemes is aware of dynamic data operations. As a result, their applicability in cloud data storage can be drastically limited.
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In this paper, we propose an effective and flexible distributed scheme with explicit dynamic data support to ensure the correctness of users’ data in the cloud. We rely on erasure correcting code in the file distribution preparation to provide redundancies and guarantee the data dependability. This construction drastically reduces the communication and storage overhead as compared to the traditional replication-based file distribution techniques. By utilizing the homomorphic token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, our scheme achieves the storage correctness insurance as well as data error localization: whenever data corruption has been detected during the storage correctness verification, our scheme can almost guarantee the simultaneous localization of data errors, i.e., the identification of the misbehaving server(s).
- Compared to many of its predecessors, which only provide binary results about the storage state across the distributed servers, the challenge-response protocol in our work further provides the localization of data error.
- Unlike most prior works for ensuring remote data integrity, the new scheme supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on data blocks, including: update, delete and append.
- Extensive security and performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding attacks.