Report On Air Heater Design For LNG Regasification Terminal

The worldwide liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade has increased steadily (over 5 % per year) since the industry began. It stands at 120 MTPA in 2002 and is expected to rise to 160 MTPA in 2005/6. This trend is expected to continue as natural gas becomes the fuel of choice for electric power providers and as developing countries increase their energy demands. The receiving terminal is one component of the LNG chain between the gas field and the residential or industrial consumer.

Liquefied natural gas is natural gas, primarily composed of methane, which has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage and transport. LNG takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas. The conversion of natural gas to its liquefied form allows for the transport of greater quantities. Liquefaction describes the process of cooling natural gas to -162°C (-259°F) until it forms a liquid. LNG must be turned back into a gas for commercial use and this is done at regasification plants. This Information describes the process used to produce and ultimately be deliver LNG to consumers.

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The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 kg/L to 0.5 kg/L, depending on temperature, pressure, and composition, compared to water at 1.0 kg/L. The heat value depends on the source of gas that is used and the process that is used to liquefy the gas. The higher heating value of LNG is estimated to be 24 MJ/L at −164 degrees Celsius. This value corresponds to a lower heating value of 21 MJ/L.

The natural gas fed into the LNG plant will be treated to remove water, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and other components that will freeze (e.g., benzene) under the low temperatures needed for storage or be destructive to the liquefaction facility. LNG typically contains more than 90% methane. It also contains small amounts of ethane, propane, butane and some heavier alkanes. The purification process can be designed to give almost 100% methane

India Natural Gas


India had 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2007.The total gas production in India was about 31,400 mcm in 2002-03 compared with 2,358 mcm in 1980-81. At this production level, India’s reserves are likely to last for around 29 years; that is significantly longer than the 19 years estimated for oil reserves. Almost 70% of India’s natural gas reserves are found in the Bombay High basin and in Gujarat. Offshore gas reserves are also located in Andhra Pradesh coast (Krishna Godavari Basin) and Tamil Nadu coast (Cauvery Basin). Onshore reserves are located in Gujarat and the North Eastern states (Assam and Tripura).


Dry natural gas production & consumption (2003) – 0.96 tcf (consumption equalled production in 2003)
Current Energy Production

16,385.61 MW

Problems with Natural Gas

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  • Not a renewable source of energy.
  • India has only limited reserves of natural gas, though further discoveries are being made from recent explorations
  • Owing to the high percentage of methane in natural gas, it is highly combustible
  • The process of extraction of natural gas involves making large cavities in the ground. Natural gas requires highly complex treatment plants and pipelines for its delivery.
  • Natural gas occupies four times the space of a gasoline-equivalent energy.


LNG is a clear, colourless, non-toxic liquid that can be transported and stored more easily than natural gas because it occupies up to 600 times less space.

When LNG reaches its destination, it is returned to a gas at regasification facilities. It is then piped to homes, businesses and industries.




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