[download-attachment id=”1607″ title=”Electronics Project Report on Woman Security System”]The rapid development of electronics provides a secure environment to the human. As a part of this ‘ WOMAN SECURITY SYSTEM’ is designed to reduce the risk of accidents and will reduce the rate of rape. This system is composed of a Microcontroller and a GSM Modem.
This is an inexpensive device which reduces the problem associated with accident notification.
In this project-
We use a ATMEL89C52 microcontroller. It mainly controls all the functions of the project. A GSM modem is used to send messages to the predefined numbers stored in the microcontroller. This GSM modem uses commands in order to send messages to the predefined number.
A power supply is a major concern for every electronic device. Since the controller and other devices used are low power devices there is a need to step down the voltage and as well as rectify the output to convert the output to a constant AC(alternating current).
A transformer is one such device that is used to increase/decrease the input voltage, as per the requirement. Transformers are classified into two types, depending upon their functionality:
- Step-up transformers
- Step-down transformers
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Here, we use a step-down transformer for stepping down the household AC power supply i.e. the 230-240v power supply to merely 5V. We use a 5-0-5V center tapped step-down transformer.
The output of the transformer is an AC and should be rectified to a constant DC(direct current). For that, it is necessary to feed the output of the transformer to a rectifier.
The rectifier is employed to convert the AC to a constant DC. There are many rectifiers available in the market. Some of them are:
- Half-wave rectifiers
- Full-wave rectifiers
- Bridge rectifiers
The rectification is done by using one or more diodes connected in series or parallel.
If only one diode is used, only first half cycle is rectified and it is termed as half-wave rectification and the rectifier used is termed as half-wave rectifier. If two diodes are employed in parallel, both positive and negative half-cycles are rectified and this is a full-wave rectification and the rectifier is termed as full-wave rectifier.
If the diodes are arranged in the form of the bridge, it is termed as Bridge rectifier, and it acts as a full-wave rectifier.